Focke-Wulf Fw 190
Proposed in 1937, as the Bf 109 was joining the Luftwaffe, Kurt Tank's Focke-Wulf Fw 190 surprisingly featured a large air-cooled BMW radial engine. First flown on 1 June 1939, the prototype was followed by short- and long-span pre-production Fw 190A-0 aircraft with BMW 801 14-cylinder radials. The long-span version was selected for production. Fw 190A-1 fighters joined the Luftwaffe in mid1941 and proved superior to the Spitfire Mk V. A-senes variations included the Fw 190A-3 with BMW 801D-2 and two 7.92-mm (0.31-in) and four 20-mm guns, the Fw 190A-4 with water-methanol power-boosting (with fighter-bomber, bomber-destroyer and tropicalized sub-variants). The Fw 190A-5 featured a slightly lengthened nose and sub-variants included versions with six 30-mm guns (A-5/U12) and torpedo-fighters (A-5/U14 and U15). The Fw 190A-7 and Fw 190A-8 entered production in December 1943 and featured increased armament and armour. The Fw 190A-8/U1 was a twoseat conversion trainer. The next main production version, the Fw 190D, featured a lengthened nose and Junkers Jumo 213 liquid-cooled engine in an annular cowling.
The Fw 190D-9 was the main service version, which joined the Luftwaffe in the autumn of 1944, and was generally regarded as Germany's best wartime piston-engine fighter; with a top speed of 685 km/h (426 mph), it was armed with two cannon and two machine-guns, and was powered by a water-methanol boosted 1670-kW (2,240-hp) Jumo 213A engine. Other late versions included the Fw 190F and Fw 190G specialized ground-attack fighterbombers capable of carrying up to 1800 kg (3,968 lb) of bombs. A development of the Fw 190D was the long-span Focke-Wulf Ta 152 with increased armament and boosted Jumo 213E/B (top speed 760 km/h; 472 mph at 12500 m/41,010 ft); a small number of Ta 152H-1 fighters reached the Luftwaffe shortly before the end of the war.
Specification Focke-Wulf 190A-8
Type: single-seat fighter
Powerplant: one 1566-kW (2,100-hp) BMW 801D-2 radial piston engine with water-methanol boosting
Performance: maximum speed 654 km/h (406 mph) at 6000 m (19,685 ft); initial climb rate 720 m (2,362 ft) per minute; service ceiling 11400 m (37,402 ft); normal range 805 km (500 miles)
Weights: empty 3170 kg (6,989 lb); maximum take-off 4900 kg (10,803 lb) Dimensions: span 10.50 m (34 ft 5.4 in); length 8.84 m (29 ft 0 in); height 3.96 m (13 ft 0 in); wing area 18.30 m2 (196.99 sq ft)
Armament: two 7.92-mm (0.31-in) guns in nose and up to four 20-mm guns in wings, plus provision for wide range of underfuselage and underwing bombs, guns and rockets