Heinkel He 111
Longest-serving medium bomber of the Luftwaffe, the Heinkel He 111 stemmed from a design by Siegfried and Walter Günther for a dual-purpose commercial transport/bomber produced in 1934 and flown on 24 February 1935. Early versions featured a conventional stepped windscreen and elliptical wing leading edge, and a bomber version with these features, the He 111B-1, served with the Legion Condor in the Spanish Civil War. The first production version with straight wing leading edge was the He 11 IF, and the He 11 IP incorporated a fullyglazed asymmetric nose without external windscreen step. He 11 IPs with DB 601Aa engines were delivered to the Luftwaffe in 1939 before production switched to the most widely-used variant, the He 11 IH with Junkers Jumo 211 engines; sub-variants of this series formed the backbone of the Luftwaffe's bomber force between 1940 and 1943; they took part in numerous raids in the Battle of Britain and were flown by the pathfinder unit, KGr 100. The first version to carry torpedoes was the He 111H-6, followed by the He 111H-15; the He 111H-8 was fitted with a large and cumbersome balloon cable fender; the He 111H-11/R2 was a glider tug for the Go 242, while pathfinder versions with special radio were the He 111H-14 and He 111H-18; the He 111H-16 featured increased gun armament, and the He 111H-20 included 16 paratroop transport, night bomber and glider tug sub-variants. The He 111H22 carried a single Fi 103 flying bomb and was used against the UK late in 1944. The most extraordinary of all was the He 111Z (Zwilling, or Twin) which consisted of two He lllHs joined together with a new wing and fifth engine; it was used mainly to tow the huge Me 321 Gigant gliders. A total of about 7,300 He Ills was built.
Specification Heinkel He 111H-16
Type: five-crew medium bomber
Powerplant: two 1,350-hp (1007-kW) Junkers Jumo 2HF inverted V-12 piston engines
Performance: maximum speed 436 km/h (271 mph) at 6000 m (19,685 ft); climb to 6000 m (19,685 ft) in 42 minutes; service ceiling 6700 m (21,980 ft); range 1950 km (1,212 mues)
Weights: empty 8680 kg (19,136 lb); maximum take-off 14000 kg (30,865 lb) Dimensions: span 22.60 m (74 ft 1% in); length 16.40 m (53ft 9 Va in); height 3,40 m (11 ft 15 in); wing area 86.50 m2 (931.07 sq ft)
Armament: one 20-mm MG FF cannon in nose, one 13-mm (0.51-in) MG 131 gun in dorsal position, two 7.92-mm (0.31-in) MG 15 guns in rear of ventral gondola and two 7.92-mm (0.31-in) MG 81 guns in each of two beam positions, plus a bombload of 2000 kg (4,409 lb) internally and 2000 kg (4,409 lb) externally